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Note: One-time references and Internet sources are listed directly on the species pages where they apply.

Adams, B. & numerous contributors.   Waterwise Florida Landscapes. 80 pp. Water Management Districts of Florida. Second printing 2004. (ADA)

Ajilvsgi, G. Butterfly Gardening for the South. xii + 327 pp. Taylor Publ. Co., Dallas.                 1990. (AJI)

Alejandro, G. B., S. G. Razafimandimbison, & S. Liede-Schumann. Polyphyly of Mussaenda inferred from Its and trnT-F data and its implication for generic limits in Mussaendeae (Rubiaceae (FN1). Amer. Jour. Bot. 92(3): 544-557. 2005. (ALE)

American Aroid Society. Genera of Araceae. Available at: (ARA)

American Bamboo Society. The species tables index. Available at: (AME)  (See also Bamboo Web below.)

Armitage, A. (and A. Kays) Armitage's Manual of Annuals, Biennials, and Half-Hardy Perennials. 539 pp. Timber Press, Portland.  (ARM)Austin, D. F. Coastal Park Plant Guide. 76 pp. Boca Raton, FL. 1991. (AU1)

______. Florida Ethnobotany. 909 pp. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL and other cities. 2004. (AUS)

Bailey, L. H. Manual of Cultivated Plants. Revised ed. 1116 pp. MacMillan, New York. 1949. (BA1)

_______. The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. In 3 volumes. MacMillan, New York. 1900, 1914. (BAC)

_______ & E. Z. Bailey. Hortus Third. Revised and expanded by the staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. iv + 1290 pp. MacMillan. New York & London. 1976. (BA2)

Bamboo for You. Commercial nursery website, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. Available at: (BA1)

Bamboo Web. Available (with photos and cultural attributes of numerous species based on American Bamboo Society Species List) at: (BA2)

Barneby, R. C. Silk Tree, Guanacaste, Monkey’s Earring. (BAR)

Berry, F, & W. J. Kress. Heliconia, an Identification Guide. viii + 334 pp. Smithsonian Institution. Washington DC & London. 1991. (BER)

Betrock Information Systems. Plant Finder. Monthly periodical. (PF)

Black, R. Vines for Florida. UF IFAS Circular 860. Revised 2001. (BLV)

_______. & E. Gilman. Landscape Plants for the Gulf and South Atlantic States. xi + 232 pp. Univ. Press of FL. Gainesville & other cities. 2004. (BLA)

_______. & ________. Your Florida Guide to Bedding Plants.  71 pp. UF, Gainesville. 1997. (BL2)

_______ & K. C. Ruppert. Your Florida Landscape. vi + 234 pp. Univ. of Florida. Gainesville. 1995. (BLR)

_______ & B. Tjia. Annual Flowers for Florida. (BLT)

Boning,C. Florida's Best Fruiting Plants. 232 pp. pineapple Press, Sarasota, FL. (BON)

Bowden, R. Florida Fruit and Vegetable Growing. 287pp.Cool Springs Press. Brentwood, Tennessee. 2010. (BOW)

Broschat, T., & A. W. Meerow. Betrock’s Reference Guide to Florida Landscape Plants. 4th Printing. xiii + 428 pp. Betrock Information Systems. Hollywood, FL. 1996. (BR1)

Broszio, Marx. Personal communication. Mr. Broszio is owner of Bamboos for You,  bamboo nursery. (BR2) (See Mr. Broszio’s website at

Chaplin, L. T., & M. M. Brandies. The Florida Gardener’s Book of Lists. iv + map + 200 pp. Taylor Publ. Co. Dallas. 1998. (CH1)

Charters, M. California Plant Names. Latin and Greek derivations and meanings. Available at: (CHA)

Chin, H.F. & H.S. Yong, Malaysian Fruits in Colour. 129 pp. Tropical Press. Kuala Lumpur. 1980. (1996 printing) (CHI)

Christman, S. editor. Floridata. Available at: (CHR)

Cronquist, A. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. xviii + 1262 pp. New York. 1981. (CRO)

Dave’s Garden.  Available at: (DAV)

Dehgan, B. Landscape Plants for Subtropical Climates. xxxii + 638 pp. University Press of Florida. Gainesville & additional cities. 1998. (DEH)

Ellison, D. Cultivated Plants of the World. x + 598 pp. Flora Publ. Australia. 1995. (ELC)

_______. & A. Betrock’s Cultivated Palms of the World. ix + 257 pp. Betrock Information Systems. Hollywood, FL. 2001. (ELL)

Fairchild Botanical Garden. Fairchild Guide to Palms.(FAI)

Farr, E., & G. Zjilstra, editors. Index Nominum Genericorum. Available at: (FAR)

Fernald, M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. 8th ed. lxiv + 1632 pp. New York & additional cities. 1950. (FER)

Flora of North America.  Editorial Committee, editors. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 7+ vols. New York & Oxford. Printed version . (FNA, alternatively cited singly as individual treatments)

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. List of Florida’s Invasive Species. Available at: (Abbreviated FEPPC in the present manual) (FL1)

Florida Nursery, Growers & Landscape Association. Locator. Published annually by the FNGLA. (FL2)

Florida Yards & Neighborhoods. UF/IFAS. A Guide to Florida-Friendly Landscaping. . Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Handbook. 104 pp. + data table (Florida-Friendly Plant List).   3rd ed. 2006. (FYN)

Floridata-see Christman (CHR)

Francis, J. K. Senna polyphylla. Dept. of Agriculture, Forestry Service. (FRA)

Gabriel Sanchez-Ken, J. Thysanolaena. Grass Manual on the Web (Flora of North America incomplete). Available at: (GAB)

Garden Club of Palm Beach. Gardens by the Sea. Creating a Tropical Paradise. 200 pp. Univ. Press of Florida. Gainesville. 1999. (GCP)

Germplasm Research Information Network (GRIN). USDA Agricultural Research Service. GRIN Taxonomy for Plants. (GRI)

Gilman, E. F. Trees for Urban and Suburban Landscapes. ix + 662 pp. Delmar. Albany & several cities. 1997. (GIL)

_______. Florida Trees for Urban and Suburban Sites. (GI2)

Godfrey, R. K., & J. W. Wooten. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern United States: Monocotyledons. 683 pp. Univ. Georgia Press. Athens, GA. 1979. (GOD)

Graf, A. B. Hortica. First ed. Map + i + 1216 + ii pp. Roehrs Co. E. Rutherford, NJ. 1992. (GR1)

_______. Tropica. 4th ed. 1152 pp. Roehrs Co. E. Rutherford, NJ. 1981. (GR2)

Griffiths, M. Royal Horticultural Society Index of Garden Plants. lxi + 1234 pp. Timber Press. Portland. 1994. (GRF)

GRIN…see GRI above

Haehle, R.G., & J. Brookwell. Native Florida Plants, Low-Maintenance Landscaping and Gardening. viii + 360 pp. Gulf Publishing Co. Houston. 1999. (HAE)

Hammer, R. L. Everglades Wildflowers. 220 pp. Globe Pequot Press. China. 2002. (HA1)

_______. Florida Keys Wildflowers. 229 pp. Globe Pequot Press. China. 2004. (HA2)

Harvard University Herbaria. Index of Botanists. (HAR)

Haynes, J. editor. Virtual Palm Encyclopedia. Available at: (HAY)

Hickman, J. C., editor, The Jepson Manual of Higher Plants of California. Available at: (HIC)

Hitchcock, A. S. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. Revised ed. 1051 pp. United States Government Printing Office. Washington, DC. 1951. (HIT)

Holttum, R. E. & I. Enoch. Gardening in the Tropics. viii + 384 pp. Timber Pres. Portland. 1999 (reprint of original 1991 publication). (HOL)

Huxley, A, M. Griffiths, & M. Levy (editors). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. 4 volumes. Stockton Press. New York. This printing 1997 (first published 1992). (HUX)

International Plants Names Index, a collaborative effort by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Harvard University Herbaria, and the Australian National Herbarium. Available at: (INT)

Index Kewensis-See International Plant Names Index.

Index Nominum Genericorum-See Farr.

Institute for Regional Conservation. Miami, Florida. Available at: (IRC)

Isely, D. Vascular Flora of the Southeastern United States. Fabaceae. 258 pp. Univ. North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill. 1990. (ISE)

Jones, D. L. Encyclopedia of Ferns. xvii + 433 pp. Lothian Publ. Co. Melbourne & additional cities. 1987. (JOF)

_______. Cycads of the World. 312 pp. Smithsonian Press. Washington, DC. 1993. (JOC)

_______. Palms throughout the World. Frontisp. + 410 pp. Smithsonian Press. Washington, DC. 1995. (JON).

Kartesz, J. USDA, NRCS. The PLANTS database, Version 3.1. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. (Available at) . Vascular plant nomenclature, most phytogeography, and core attribute data for the United States and its Caribbean territories provided under a cooperative agreement with John Kartesz and his staff at the Biota of North America Program (BONAP). (KAR).

Kodela, P., T. Tame, B. Conn, K. Hill, & L. L. Lee. Wattle Web. See Wattleweb below. (KOD)

Kramer, J. Bromeliads. Frontisp. + xi + 179 pp. Harper & Row. NY and additional cities. 1981. (KRA)

Lakela, O. & R. Wunderlin. Trees of Central Florida. 208 pp. Banyan Books. Miami. (LAK)

Lampe, K. F. & M. A. McCann. AMA Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants. xi + 432 pp. AMA. Chicago. 1985. (LAM)

Langeland, K. A. & K. C. Burks. editors. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas. v + 165 pp. Univ. Florida. 1998. (LAN)

Langeland, K. A. & K. C. Burks. _______, H. M. CHERRY, C.M. MCCORMICK, & K. C. BURKS. Identification and Ecology of Nonnative Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas. 2nd ed. map + vi + 193 pp. Univ. of Florida. Gainesville. 2008. (LA2)

Lewis, C. E., & S. Zona. Leucothrinax morrisii, a new name for a familiar Caribbean palm. Palms. 52(2): 84-88. 2008. (LEW)Llamas, K. A. Tropical Flowering Plants. 423 pp. Timber Press. Portland & Cambridge. 2003. (LLA)

Loh, J. P., R. Kiew, O. Set, L. H. Gan, & Y. Y. Gan. A study of genetic variation and relationships within the bamboo subtribe Bambusinae using amplified fragment length polymorphism. Ann. Bot. 85: 607-612. 2000. (LOH)

Long, R. W. & O. Lakela. A Flora of Tropical Florida. xvii + 962 pp. Univ. Miami Press. Coral Gables. 1971. ed. 2. Banyan Press, Miami. 1976. (LON)

MacCubbin, T. & G. B. Tasker. Florida Gardener’s Guide. Revised. ed. 272 pp. Cool Springs Press. Nashville. 2002. (1997 edition also consulted) (MAC)

Macoby, S. What Flower is That?  317 pp. Lawnsdowne Press. Sydney. 1969. Reprinted 1984. (MAY)

Maidman, K. Ten Great Palms for South Florida.  (MAI)

Masman, W. Bamboo Names and Synonyms. (MAS)

McLaughlin, J. &  J. Garofalo. Mussaendas for South Florida Landscapes. Miami-Dade Extension Service Fact Sheet #82. (MCL)

McSwain, M. J. Florida Gardening by the Sea. xii + 193 pp. Univ. Press of Florida. 1997. (MCS)

Meerow, A. W. Betrock’s Guide to Landscape Palms. xiv + 153 pp. Betrocks Information Systems. Hollywood, FL. 1996. (MEE)

______, H. M. Dondelman, & T. K. Broschat. Native Trees for South Florida. IFAS EES57. (Available at: (Data table of cultural attributes.) (ME2)

Meredith, T.  Bamboo for Gardens. Frontisp. + 406 pp. Timber Press. Portland. 2001. (ME3)

Miller, H. & S. Lamb. Oaks of North America. 327 pp. Naturegraph Publishers. Happy Camp, CA. 1985. (MIL)

Morton, J. F. 500 Plants of South Florida. 2nd ed. Seeman. 1974. (MO1)

_______. Fruits of Warm Climates. xii + 505 + 1 pp. Published by the author. 1987. (MO3) (Available at: )

_______. Plants Poisonous to People in Florida. Univ. Miami. Coral Gables. 1995. (MO2)

Multilingual multiscript plant name database. Sorting Bambusa names. Available at: (MUL)

Nellis, D. W. Seashore Plants of South Florida and the Caribbean.153 pp. Pineapple Press. Sarasota, FL. 1994. (NE1)

Nelson, G. The Trees of Florida. xviii + 338 pp. Pineapple Press. Sarasota, FL. 1994. (NE2)

_______. The Shrubs and Woody Vines of Florida. 20 + 391 + 1 pp. Edwards Brothers. Ann   Arbor, MI. 1996. (NE3)

_______. The Ferns of Florida. 208 pp. Pineapple Press. Sarasota, FL. 2000. (NEF).

_______. Florida’s Best Native Landscape Plants. 200 Readily Available Species for Homeowners and Professionals. xix + map + 409 pp. + iii pp. Univ. Press of Florida. Gainesville & additional cities. 2003. (NE4)

Noblick, L. Graphical Palm Key (based largely on MEE). Available at: (NOB)

Ohrnberger, D. The Bamboos of the World. 596 pp. Elsevier. Amsterdam. 1999. (OHR)

Osorio, R. A Gardener’s Guide to Florida’s Native Plants. Univ. Press of Florida. 2001. (OSO)

Palm  and  Cycad Societies of Australia. (PAL)

Patterson, J., & G. Stevensen. Native Trees of the Bahamas. 128. pp. Patterson. Hope Town, Bahamas. 1977. (PAT)

Price, G. R. Cultivated Mussaendas in the Philippines. Philipp. Jour. Biol. 1(3): 37-55. 1974. (PRI)

Plant Finder…PF (See Betrocks above)

Puff, C. & V. Chamchumroon. Non-indigenous Rubiaceae grown in Thailand. Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 31: 75–94. 2003. (PUF)

_______, A. Igersheim, & U. Rohrhofer. Pseudomussaenda and Schizomussaenda (Rubiaceae): Close allies of Mussaenda. Bul. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 62: 35-68. 1993. (PU2)

Riffle, R. L. The Tropical Look: An Encyclopedia of Dramatic Landscape Plants. 393 pp. Timber Press. Portland. 1999. (RIF)

_______. & P. Craft. An Encyclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Timber Press. Portland & Cambridge. 2003. (RI2)

Rogers, G. K. The genera of Cinchonoideae (Rubiaceae) in the Southeastern United States. Jour. Arnold Arb. 68: 137-183. 1987. (ROG)

Ruppert, K. & R. J. Black. Florida Lawn Handbook. 2nd ed. iv + 217 pp. Univ. Press of Florida. 1998. (RUP)

Rushing, F. Tough Plants for Florida Gardens. 240 pp. Cool Springs Press. Nashville.  2004. (RUS)

Saporito, R. Personal communication and web publications. Local bamboo grower and owner of Tropical Bamboo, Inc. See Mr. Saporito’s website, with Featured Bamboos and complete list of bamboos in propagation. Available at: (SAP)

Scurlock, J. Native Trees and Shrubs of the Florida Keys. Revised ed. 170 pp. + glossary + key + index. Laurel & Herbert, Inc. Sugarloaf Shores, FL. 1996. (SCU)

SIMPSON, C. T. Ornamental Gardening in Florida. Published by the author. Little River, Florida. 1916 (SIM) [Available on-line:]

Smiley, N. Florida Gardening Month by Month. Revised ed., 6th printing. 189 pp. Univ. Miami Press. 1980. (SM2)

Smith, N., S. Mori, A. Henderson, D. Stevenson, & S. Heald, editors. Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. xxii + 594 pp. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton & Oxford. 2004. (SMI)

Space, J., et. al. Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. Available at: (SPA)

Stearn, W. T. Stearn’s Dictionary of Plant Names for Gardeners. x + 363 pp. Timber Press. Portland. 2002 reprint. (STD)  Available on-line at:,M1

_______. Botanical Latin. xiv + 546 pp. Timber Press. Portland. First paperback ed. 2004. (STE)

Steens, A. Bromeliads for the Contemporary Garden. 198 pp. Timber Press. Portland. 2003. (STB)

Stein J., D. Binion, & R. Acciavatti. Field Guide to Native Oak Species of Eastern North America. vi + 161 pp. + charts. USDA Forest Service. 2003. (STO)

Stebbins, M. Flowering Trees of Florida. 144 pp. Pineapple Press. Sarasota, FL. 1999. (excellent photos) (ST2)

Stevens, M. Begonias. 96 pp. Firefly Books. Richmond Hill, Ontario. 2002. (STB)

Stresau, F. B. Florida, My Eden. ix + 299 pp. Florida Classics Library. Port Salerno, FL. 1986. (STR)

Sturrock, D. Trees for Southern Florida, a Plea for Afforestation. Front papers + frontisp. + vii + map + 213 pp. Central & Southern Florida Flood Control District. 1968. (Contains rich data, primarily on native species.) (STU)

Tebbitt, M. C. Begonias. Cultivation, Identification, and Natural History. 272 pp. + 212 color photos. Timber Press. Portland. 2005. [Primarily a reference for gardeners. B. cucullata, 15, 17, 60, 83, 109-112, 188, 212; pl. 61. B. hirtella, 36, 39, 61, 149-151; pl. 117.]

Tobe, J., & numerous co-authors. Florida Wetland Plants, an Identification Manual. x + 598 pp. Florida Dept. Environmental Protection. Tallahassee, FL. 1998. (TOB)

Tomlinson, P. B. The Biology of Trees Native to Tropical Florida. 2nd ed. vi + 396 pp. Harvard Printing & Publications Services. Cambridge, MA. 2001. (TOM)

Toogood, A. editor. American Horticultural Society. Plant Propagation. 320 pp. DK Publishing. London. 1999. (TOO)

Tropical Bamboo-See Saporito

University of Florida-Environmental Horticulture Databases: 680 tree fact sheets and 514 shrub fact sheets. Available at (UNI, usually cited individually on individual species pages)

University of Florida IFAS publications. These are cited on individual species pages by the IFAS publication number preceded by “UF.”

Utech, F. Liliaceae. Flora of North America, Vol. 26. Online date 2003. Available at: . (UTE)

Water Management Districts of Florida---See Adams.

Watkins, J. V. & T. J. Sheehan. Florida Landscape Plants. Revised ed. viii + 420 pp.      Univ.   Presses of Florida. Gainesville. 1986 reprint. (WA1)

Watson, L. &  M. J. Dallwitz. Grass Genera of the World. Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval; Including Synonyms, Morphology, Anatomy, Physiology, Phytochemistry, Cytology, Classification, Pathogens, World and Local Distribution, and References. (WAT)

Wattleweb. A Web Guide to the Wattles [Acacias] of New South Wales. Available at: (KOD)

West, E. & L. E. Arnold. The Native Trees of Florida. 212 pp. Univ. Florida Press. Gainesville. 1948. (WES)

Whistler, W. A. Tropical Ornamentals. 542 pp. Timber Press. Portland. 2000. (WHI)

Whitelock, L. M. The Cycads. 374 pp. Timber Press. Portland. 2002. (WH2)

Widjaja, E. State of the Art of Indonesian Bamboo in A. & V. Rao, editors, Bamboo - Conservation, Diversity, Ecogeography, Germplasm, Resource Utilization and Taxonomy. 1997. (WI1)

_______. New taxa in Indonesian bamboo. Reinwardtia  11: 57-152. 1998? (WI2)

Williams, W. Florida’s Fabulous Trees. 65 pp. World-Wide Publ. Tampa. 1986. (WIL)

Wipff, J. K. Pennisetum Rich. Grass Manual on the Web (Flora of North America incomplete). Available at:


Workman, W. W. Growing Native. Native Plants for Landscape Use in Coastal South Florida. x + 137 pp. Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation. Sanibel, FL. 1980. (WOR)

Wunderlin, R. P. & B. F. Hansen. Flora of Florida. Vol. I. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. xii + 365 pp. Univ. Press of Florida. Gainesville & other cities. 2000. (WH1)

_______& _______. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida, ed. 2. Map + ix + 788 + ii pp. 2003. Univ. Press of Florida. Gainesville & other cities. (WU1)

_______ & _______. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Available at: S. M. Landry & K. N. Campbell (application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research. Institute for Systematic Botany, Univ. S. Florida, Tampa.)  (WU2)

Yarlett, L. L. Common Grasses of Florida and the Southeast. viii + 167 pp. Florida Native Plant Society. Spring Hill, FL. 1996. (YAR)

Zomlefer, W. Guide to Flowering Plant Families. xiv + 430 pp. Chapel Hill, London. 1994. (ZOM)




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